Objectives: To investigate the prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in patients with localized upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) after radical nephroureterectomy. Methods: The clinical records of 271 patients with UUT-TCC who underwent radical nephroureterectomy between 1986 and 2006 were reviewed. Patients with pT4 stage, lymph node involvement, or distant metastasis were excluded. A total of 238 patients with pTa-3N0M0 were eligible. The prognostic significance of various clinicopathologic factors was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. The mean age was 64.1 years (range, 25-91 years) and the median follow-up duration was 53.4 months (range, 3-240 months). Results: LVI was present in 31 patients (13%). LVI was related to higher pT stage, high tumor grade, sessile architecture, and squamous differentiation. On univariate analysis, tumor architecture, squamous differentiation, LVI, tumor grade, and pT stage influenced disease-specific survival. On multivariate analysis, LVI (hazards ratio [HR], 2.33; P = .014) and pT stage (HR, 2.07; P = .021) showed significantly different rates of disease-specific survival. Patients were classified according to pT stage and LVI. The high-risk group (pT3 and LVI+) showed significantly worse disease-specific survival than the low- (pT ≤ 2 and LVI-) or intermediate-risk groups (pT3 and LVI-, pT ≤ 2 and LVI+) (P <.001 and P = .032, respectively). Conclusions: LVI and pT stage are significant prognostic factors for recurrence-free and cancer-specific survivals in patients with localized UUT-TCC. LVI and pT stage would be helpful for selecting patients who are appropriate for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
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