Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common end point of chronic kidney diseases, and preventing its progression is key to avoiding renal failure. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and associated molecules promote tubulointerstitial fibrosis; however, effective therapies targeting these molecules have yet to be developed. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), which is involved in invasive growth and metastasis of malignant neoplasms, has recently been reported to serve a key role in hepatic and pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is currently known regarding LOXL2 expression in the kidney and its involvement in tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The present study evaluated LOXL2 expression in human and mouse kidney tissues, as well as in cultured renal cells. LOXL2 protein expression was detected in glomerular capillary loops and tubular epithelial cells in human and mouse kidneys. Glomerular LOXL2 was localized to the cytoplasm of podocytes, as determined by double immunofluorescence microscopy using a podocyte marker (synaptopodin). This result was supported by western blot analysis, which demonstrated that LOXL2 protein expression is present in cultured human podocytes and HK-2 human proximal tubular cells. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of LOXL2 were higher in a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis compared with in control mice. In addition, immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that LOXL2 is present in the fibrous interstitium and infiltrating mononuclear cells in a mouse model of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The present study demonstrated that LOXL2 is expressed in compartments of renal tissue, where it appears to contribute to the progression of tubulointerstitial fibrosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The present study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (grant no. NRF-2015R1C1A1A02036671).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Molecular Biology
- Cancer Research