Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is an important aspect of hypertension research. Morning BP monitoring could be a clinically relevant concept in the therapeutic management of hypertension and in the prevention of cardiovascular complications by defining and treating morning hypertension. Because antihypertensive medication is often taken in the morning, uncontrolled morning BP during the trough effect hours could be a hallmark of inadequate choice of antihypertensive regimen, such as the use of short- or intermediate-acting drugs, underdosing of drugs, or no use or underuse of combination therapy. To improve the management of hypertension in general and morning hypertension in particular, long-acting antihypertensive drugs should be used in appropriate, often full dosages and in proper combinations. The clinical usefulness of antihypertensive drugs with specific mechanisms for morning BP or split or timed dosing of long-acting drugs in controlling morning BP remains under investigation.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr Ji-Guang Wang has received lecture and consultation fees from Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Daiichi-Sankyo, MSD, Novartis, Omron, Pfizer, Sanofi, and Servier. Dr Kazuomi Kario has received honoraria from Mochida Pharmaceutical, Takeda, Daiichi Sankyo, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Shionogi, AstraZeneca K.K., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Bayer Yakuhin, Pfizer Japan, Boehringer Ingelheim Japan, Astellas Pharma, and MSD K.K., and grants from Fukuda Denshi, Omron Healthcare, Bayer Yakuhin, MSD K.K., Mochida Pharmaceutical, Novartis Pharma K.K., Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Boehringer Ingelheim Japan, Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Astellas Pharma, Teijin Pharma, Bristol-Myers K.K, and Shionogi. Dr Chen-Huan Chen has received honoraria for lectures during scientific meetings sponsored or arranged by Boehringer-Ingelheim, Sanofi, Novartis, AstraZeneca, and Pfizer.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine