Researchers have raised concerns that it is very essential to concentrate on sustainable and renewable energy resources to control the elevated level of global warming, which is a result of the enormous usage of fossil fuels. Biofuel is considered as an alternative solution for non-renewable sources for energy production. The assurance of this supply relies on a sustainable and efficient supply chain. For this study, a multi-objective model is proposed to structure a sustainable supply chain for second-generation biofuel under a triple bottom line approach. The proposed model captures a trade-off among conflicting objectives. The multiple agricultural regions, multiple biorefineries, transportation, and multiple markets are considered. The yield of residual biomass, the expense at agricultural regions, and the demand of markets are assumed uncertain and denoted by fuzzy numbers. The carbon tax and cap are incorporated into the supply chain model. The improved augmented ε-constraint approach is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimization model. The objective of developed research is to design a sustainable supply chain framework which minimizes the total carbon emissions and total cost and maximizes the amount of new jobs opportunities in a second-generation biofuel. A numerical experiment is conducted, and the finding shows that the production cost of biofuel in the biorefineries contains a major proportion of the total cost. The transportation section is the predominant source for carbon emissions and a maximum number of jobs is accrued in rural areas. In-depth sensitivity analysis of this study is also performed to examine its actual application.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier B.V.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Economics and Econometrics