Mathematical model of modified hybrid pump mechanism for cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Dong Ah Shin, Jung Chan Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and objective: The “Cardiac pump theory” and “Thoracic pump theory” are representative theories of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) mechanisms. Based on these theories, many studies on mathematical modeling have been performed to help understand hemodynamics during CPR. However, there are parts that do not yet properly reflect the physiology of CPR. Therefore, this study aims to develop a lumped parameter model of CPR that can more accurately reflect the current CPR physiology. Methods: By adding compartments of the superior and inferior vena cava of the thoracic cavity to the existing CPR model, and the “Hybrid pump” mechanism was applied to simulate CPR. To compare the hemodynamics of the conventional CPR model and the developed CPR model, various conditions, such as active compression–decompression CPR with an impedance threshold valve device (ACD–CPR+ITV), head-up-tilt (HUT), and head-down-tilt (HDT), were simulated. The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was compared by modulating the compression ratio of the atrium and ventricle with the thoracic pump factor. Results: The result for the comparison of coronary blood flow showed that the existing model is predominant in the compression phase, whereas the developed model is dominant in the relaxation phase. ACD–CPR + ITV results showed that the CPP decreased by 5 % in the existing model, and increased by about 46 % in the developed model, revealing a distinct hemodynamic difference between the two models. Likewise, as a result of comparing the hemodynamic differences of the two models according to the changes in tilt angle, the HUT showed similar trends, while the HDT showed slightly different results. The CPP varied accordingly with the ratio of the ventricular and atrial thoracic pump factor. Conclusion: Comparison of the hemodynamics with the existing model by simulating various conditions showed that the developed CPR model reflects the CPR physiology better. The model suggests that the hemodynamics may vary depending on the ventricle and atrium compression ratio. This study may provide an important basis for helping understand various situations and patient-specific hemodynamic characteristics during CPR through in-depth research, such as patient-specific model and parameter optimization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106106
JournalComputer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jul

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier B.V.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Informatics


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