Objectives: In polyhydramnios, amniotic fluid (AF) volume can be increased not only as a result of increased fetal urine production, but also due to several other factors, including impairment of both fetal swallowing and gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of AF. Our aim was to evaluate whether measurement of the fetal urine production rate (UPR) can be used to differentiate the causes of increased AF volume. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 54 pregnant women with an increased amniotic fluid index (AFI), defined as AFI ≥18 cm, divided into two groups according to the presence of fetal anomalies that are associated with impairment of fetal swallowing or decreased GI absorption of AF (Group 1, n = 14) or the absence of fetal anomalies (Group 2, n = 40). The control group included 96 normal pregnancies with normal AFI (8 ≤ AFI <18 cm) (Group 3). Fetal UPR was obtained by serial bladder volume measurements (two to four times, with a median interval of 5 min between each) using the rotational method of Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL™) with three-dimensional ultrasound. To adjust for fetal weight (Wt) and gestational age (GA), UPR Wt and UPR SD were calculated using the following formulae: UPR Wt = measured UPR/estimated fetal weight and UPR SD = (measured UPR - mean UPR for each GA)/SD of UPR for each GA. Results: The AFI was increased significantly in Groups 1 and 2 compared with Group 3. However, the median fetal UPR in Group 1 did not differ from that of Group 3, in contrast to the higher median fetal UPR in Group 2 compared with Groups 1 and 3; this difference remained significant after adjusting for GA and estimated fetal weight in terms of UPR SD and UPR Wt. In Groups 2 and 3, AFI and UPR had a positive correlation in terms of UPR, UPR SD and UPR Wt. Conclusions: Our findings that fetal UPR is significantly increased in cases with increased AFI without fetal anomalies, but not in those with increased AFI and fetal anomalies involving decreasedGI absorption of AF, might be used to differentiate causes of increased AF volume. In the absence of fetal anomalies, AFI and fetal UPR correlate positively.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Reproductive Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Obstetrics and Gynaecology