Measurement of surface deformation related to the December 2018 Mt. Etna eruption using time-series interferometry and magma modeling for hazard zone mapping

Suci Ramayanti, Arief R. Achmad, Hahn Chul Jung, Min Jeong Jo, Sang Wan Kim, Yu Chul Park, Chang Wook Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Mount Etna has erupted several times since it was first formed. Recently, Mount Etna began erupting again over 24–27 December 2018. Because it erupts frequently, Mount Etna should be observed on a frequent basis. From June 2018 to October 2019, 34 and 56 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images were acquired from the ascending and descending tracks of the Sentinel-1 satellite, respectively. We employed the Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) and a refined small baseline subset (SBAS) InSAR method to produce a surface deformation time-series map. In the time-series analysis, the phase signal remained unaltered with time. The Okada model was then applied to the result to generate a modeled interferogram, and the Q-LavHA program was run to generate a lava flow prediction model. A direct comparison of the results showed that Persistent Scatterers Interferometry (PSI)-StaMPS and the refined SBAS technique were comparable in terms of the displacement pattern, with slightly different velocity values obtained for individual points. In particular, a velocity range of −25 to 21 cm/yr was obtained from PSI-StaMPS, whereas a range of −30 to 25 cm/yr was obtained from the refined SBAS method. Upon computation of the vertical and east-west displacement components based on ascending and descending track data using both methods, deformation velocities of 51.5 and 52.5 cm/yr in the westerly direction on the western flank of Mount Etna were obtained from PSI-StaMPS and the refined SBAS method, respectively, whereas on the eastern flank, deformation toward the east was estimated to occur at a velocity of 50.1 or 54.2 cm/yr, respectively. PSI-StaMPS estimated a vertical deformation velocity of −5.3 to 18.3 cm/yr, whereas the refined SBAS method produced a velocity range of approximately −7 to 19 cm/yr. The interferogram obtained via Okada modeling showed two fault sources in the 2018 Mount Etna eruption and a total volume change of approximately 12.39 × 106 m3. From the modeling results, a lava flow prediction model was generated using the Q-LavHA program. The approaches described in this study can be used by government officials, authorities, and other decision-makers to monitor and assess the risk of volcanic activity in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)749-765
Number of pages17
JournalGeosciences Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Dec

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Polar Research Institute funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (KOPRI, PE22900), the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (No. 2019R1A6A1A03033167), and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRFK) and funded by the Korean Government (2021R1A2C100578011).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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