Decellularized tissues have been successfully used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for the purpose of removing antigens present in the cellular components. However, this decellularization technique uses ionic solutions or chemical treatments such as enzyme treatments that might damage the biophysical properties or reduce the physical strength of tissue. This study aimed to improve the strength of decellularized tissues. We designed a tissue bioreactor that can repeatedly deliver physical stimulation, such as tensile and torsional deformation, to the upper and lower parts of a tissue. To decellularized porcine Tibialis tendons, we used an enzymatic solution to remove the primary cells, and then applied ultrasonic cleansing using a combination of ionic solution and distilled water to destroy residual cells by differing from the osmotic pressure between the inside and outside of the cell membrane. The total DNA content of decellularized tissue was decreased by 77% compared with that of the original tissue and the ultimate tensile strength of the decellularized tissue was 20% lower than that of the normal tissue. Decellularized tissues were then cultivated in the tissue bioreactor with repeated physical stimulation of 110% tension, 90° torsion, and frequency of once per a second, and the ultimate tensile strength was found to be greater than that of the normal ligament at 7 day culture. This study showed that decellularization using enzyme and mechanical treatment is safe and use of a tissue bioreactor can increase the physical strength of tendons, making this a potential mechanism to reconstruct human ligaments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ceramics and Composites
- Biomedical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys