Mechanisms of T2* anisotropy and gradient echo myelin water imaging

Jongho Lee, Yoonho Nam, Joon Yul Choi, Eung Yeop Kim, Se Hong Oh, Donghyun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In MRI, structurally aligned molecular or micro-organization (e.g. axonal fibers) can be a source of substantial signal variations that depend on the structural orientation and the applied magnetic field. This signal anisotropy gives us a unique opportunity to explore information that exists at a resolution several orders of magnitude smaller than that of typical MRI. In this review, one of the signal anisotropies, T2* anisotropy in white matter, and a related imaging method, gradient echo myelin water imaging (GRE-MWI), are explored. The T2* anisotropy has been attributed to isotropic and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of myelin and compartmentalized microstructure of white matter fibers (i.e. axonal, myelin, and extracellular space). The susceptibility and microstructure create magnetic frequency shifts that change with the relative orientation of the fiber and the main magnetic field, generating the T2* anisotropy. The resulting multi-component magnitude decay and nonlinear phase evolution have been utilized for GRE-MWI, assisting in resolving the signal fraction of the multiple compartments in white matter. The GRE-MWI method has been further improved by signal compensation techniques including physiological noise compensation schemes. The T2* anisotropy and GRE-MWI provide microstructural information on a voxel (e.g. fiber orientation and tissue composition), and may serve as sensitive biomarkers for microstructural changes in the brain.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere3513
JournalNMR in Biomedicine
Volume30
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Apr 1

Fingerprint

Anisotropy
Myelin Sheath
Imaging techniques
Water
Magnetic Fields
Magnetic resonance imaging
Fibers
Magnetic fields
Microstructure
Gradient methods
Extracellular Space
Biomarkers
Fiber reinforced materials
Magnetic susceptibility
Noise
Brain
Tissue
Chemical analysis
White Matter

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Spectroscopy

Cite this

Lee, Jongho ; Nam, Yoonho ; Choi, Joon Yul ; Kim, Eung Yeop ; Oh, Se Hong ; Kim, Donghyun. / Mechanisms of T2* anisotropy and gradient echo myelin water imaging. In: NMR in Biomedicine. 2017 ; Vol. 30, No. 4.
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Mechanisms of T2* anisotropy and gradient echo myelin water imaging. / Lee, Jongho; Nam, Yoonho; Choi, Joon Yul; Kim, Eung Yeop; Oh, Se Hong; Kim, Donghyun.

In: NMR in Biomedicine, Vol. 30, No. 4, e3513, 01.04.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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T1 - Mechanisms of T2* anisotropy and gradient echo myelin water imaging

AU - Lee, Jongho

AU - Nam, Yoonho

AU - Choi, Joon Yul

AU - Kim, Eung Yeop

AU - Oh, Se Hong

AU - Kim, Donghyun

PY - 2017/4/1

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AB - In MRI, structurally aligned molecular or micro-organization (e.g. axonal fibers) can be a source of substantial signal variations that depend on the structural orientation and the applied magnetic field. This signal anisotropy gives us a unique opportunity to explore information that exists at a resolution several orders of magnitude smaller than that of typical MRI. In this review, one of the signal anisotropies, T2* anisotropy in white matter, and a related imaging method, gradient echo myelin water imaging (GRE-MWI), are explored. The T2* anisotropy has been attributed to isotropic and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of myelin and compartmentalized microstructure of white matter fibers (i.e. axonal, myelin, and extracellular space). The susceptibility and microstructure create magnetic frequency shifts that change with the relative orientation of the fiber and the main magnetic field, generating the T2* anisotropy. The resulting multi-component magnitude decay and nonlinear phase evolution have been utilized for GRE-MWI, assisting in resolving the signal fraction of the multiple compartments in white matter. The GRE-MWI method has been further improved by signal compensation techniques including physiological noise compensation schemes. The T2* anisotropy and GRE-MWI provide microstructural information on a voxel (e.g. fiber orientation and tissue composition), and may serve as sensitive biomarkers for microstructural changes in the brain.

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