Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation technique has long been emerged in tissue engineering as it plays an important role in implantation of stem cells to regenerate a damaged tissue. MSC encapsulation provides a mimic of a three-dimensional (3D) in vivo environment to maintain cell viability and to induce the stem cell differentiation which regulates MSC fate into multi-lineages. Moreover, the 3D matrix surrounding MSCs protects them from the human innate immune system and allows the diffusion of biomolecules such as oxygen, cytokines, and growth factors. Therefore, many technologies are being developed to create MSC encapsulation platforms with diverse materials, shapes, and sizes. The conditions of the platform are determined by the targeted tissue and translation method. This review introduces several details of MSC encapsulation technologies such as micromolding, electrostatic droplet extrusion, microfluidics, and bioprinting and their application for tissue regeneration. Lastly, some of the challenges and future direction of MSC encapsulation technologies as a cell therapy-based tissue regeneration method will be discussed.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Molecular Medicine
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Cell Biology