Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an emerging therapy for treating chronic liver diseases. The potential of this treatment has been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. Although the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation are still not completely understood, accumulating evidence has revealed that their immunomodulation, differentiation, and antifibrotic properties play a crucial role in liver regeneration. The safety and therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells in patients with chronic liver disease have been observed in many clinical studies. However, only modest improvements have been seen, partly because of the limited feasibility of transplanted cells at present. Here, we discuss several strategies targeted at improving viable cell engraftment and the potential challenges in the use of extracellular vesicle-based therapies for liver disease in the future.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (2017R1A5A2015369, 2017R1A2B4009199, 2017R1D1A1A0 2019212, and 2018R1C1B5044890) and a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI15C2364 and HI17C1365).
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