Metabolism-centric overview of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease

Somang Kang, Yong Ho Lee, Jongeun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia. AD is characterized by the extracellular amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal deposits of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, as aging has become a familiar phenomenon around the world, patients with AD are increasing in number. Thus, many researchers are working toward finding effective therapeutics for AD focused on Aβ hypothesis, although there has been no success yet. In this review paper, we suggest that AD is a metabolic disease and that we should focus on metabolites that are affected by metabolic alterations to find effective therapeutics for AD. Aging is associated with not only AD but also obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). AD, obesity, and T2DM share demographic profiles, risk factors, and clinical and biochemical features in common. Considering AD as a kind of metabolic disease, we suggest insulin, adiponectin, and antioxidants as mechanistic links among these diseases and targets for AD therapeutics. Patients with AD show reduced insulin signal transductions in the brain, and intranasal injection of insulin has been found to have an effect on AD treatment. In addition, adiponectin is decreased in the patients with obesity and T2DM. This reduction induces metabolic dysfunction both in the body and the brain, leading to AD pathogenesis. Oxidative stress is known to be induced by Aβ and NFTs, and we suggest that oxidative stress caused by metabolic alterations in the body induce brain metabolic alterations, resulting in AD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-488
Number of pages10
JournalYonsei medical journal
Volume58
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 May 1

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Alzheimer Disease
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Obesity
Adiponectin
Metabolic Diseases
Insulin
Brain
Oxidative Stress
Brain Diseases
Therapeutics
Amyloid
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Dementia
Signal Transduction
Antioxidants
Research Personnel
Demography
Injections

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Kang, Somang ; Lee, Yong Ho ; Lee, Jongeun. / Metabolism-centric overview of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. In: Yonsei medical journal. 2017 ; Vol. 58, No. 3. pp. 479-488.
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Metabolism-centric overview of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. / Kang, Somang; Lee, Yong Ho; Lee, Jongeun.

In: Yonsei medical journal, Vol. 58, No. 3, 01.05.2017, p. 479-488.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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