Graphene oxide (GO) and its derivatives are promising metal-free heterogeneous catalysts due to their high surface area and rich chemical properties. We developed a bifunctional boron-doped sulfonated graphene oxide (BS-GO) and demonstrated its excellent catalytic conversion of glucose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in a one-pot reaction. BS-GO afforded a high HMF yield of 36.0% from glucose without the use of additives or strong acids. Furthermore, the origin of the catalytic active sites of BS-GO was investigated, unveiling the unique bifunctional catalytic mechanism; it was revealed that two disjunct moieties, boronic acid and phenylsulfonic acid, in a single nanosheet of BS-GO catalyst have a bifunctional effect resulting in excellent catalytic production of HMF. This study suggests the potential of BS-GO as a green and sustainable carbocatalyst for reforming biomass to produce value-added chemicals. We anticipate that the unique structural design presented in this study will provide a guide to afford viable carbocatalysts for diverse organic reactions.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2017M3A7B4052802 and NRF-2018R1A5A1025208). This research was supported by the Yonsei University Research Fund of 2018.
© The Royal Society of Chemistry.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)