Metal–Organic Frameworks Based Nano/Micro/Millimeter-Sized Self-Propelled Autonomous Machines

Bahareh Khezri, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Synthetic nano/micro/millimeter-sized machines that harvest energy from the surrounding environment and then convert it to motion have had a significant impact on many research areas such as biology (sensing, imaging, and therapy) and environmental applications. Autonomous motion is a key element of these devices. A high surface area is preferable as it leads to increased propellant or cargo-loading capability. Integrating highly ordered and porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with self-propelled machines is demonstrated to have a significant impact on the field of nano/micro/millimeter-sized devices for a wide range of applications. MOFs have shown great potential in many research fields due to their tailorable pore size. These fields include energy storage and conversion; catalysis, biomedical application (e.g., drug delivery, imaging, and cancer therapy), and environmental remediation. The marriage of motors and MOFs may provide opportunities for many new applications for synthetic nano/micro/millimeter-sized machines. Herein, MOF-based micro- and nanomachines are reviewed with a focus on the specific properties of MOFs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1806530
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Apr 5

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the project Advanced Functional Nanorobots (Reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000444 financed by the European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation (EFRR)). The authors thank Dr. Y. Yong for comments.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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