The dauer state is a non-feeding, alternative L3 state characterized by a number of distinctive metabolic and morphological changes. There are many naturally occurring dauer-inducing pheromones, termed daumones, that have been suggested by some to exhibit differences in dauer-inducing activity. Here, we have established a standard dauer-formation assay that uses synthetic daumones 1, 2, and 3, the three major daumones. To analyze the proteome of Caenorhabditis elegans in the dauer state, we focused on O-GlcNAc modification, a cytosolic modification of proteins that is known to interact either competitively or synergistically with protein phosphorylation. Protein O-GlcNAc modification is an important biological process in cells that can ensure the timely response to extracellular stimuli, such as daumone, and maintain cellular homeostasis. Establishing a standard method for assaying dauer formation using different synthetic daumones, and using differences in O-GlcNAcylated proteins during the dauer state to analyze the dauer proteome will lead to a better understanding of dauer biology of C. elegans in the context of animal longevity and adaptation under harsh environments.