Microalgae enable fixation of CO2 into carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins through inter and intracellularly biochemical pathways. These cellular components can be extracted and transformed into renewable energy, chemicals, and materials through biochemical and thermochemical transformation processes. However, recalcitrant cell wall and lack of environmentally benign efficient pretreatment processes are key obstacles in the commercialization of microalgal biorefineries. Thus, current article describes the microalgal chemical structure, type, and structural rigidity and summarizes the traditional pretreatment methods to extract cell wall constituents. Green solvents such as ionic liquid (ILs), deep eutectic solvents (DES), and natural deep eutectic solvents (NDESs) have shown interesting solvent characteristics to pretreat biomass with selective biocomponent extraction from microalgae. Further research is needed in task-specific IL/DES design, cation–anion organization, structural activity understanding of ILs-biocomponents, environmental toxicity, biodegradability, and recyclability for deployment of carbon–neutral technologies. Additionally, coupling the microalgal industry with biorefineries may facilitate waste management, sustainability, and gross revenue.
|Publication status||Published - 2023 Feb|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (Ministry of Science & ICT) (No. NRF-2019M3E6A1103839, NRF-2022M3I3A1094215) and supported by Brain Pool Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (NRF-2020H1D3A1A04081081). This work was supported in part by the Yonsei University Research Fund (Yonsei Frontier Lab, Young Researcher Supporting Program) of 2021.
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal