Microbial effects in promoting the smectite to illite reaction

Role of organic matter intercalated in the interlayer

Gengxin Zhang, Jinwook Kim, Hailiang Dong, Andre J. Sommer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cysteine and toluene as model organic molecules were intercalated into Fe-rich smectite (non-tronite, NAu-2). The illitization of these intercalated smectites as induced by microbial reduction of structural Fe3+ was investigated. Iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was incubated with lactate as the sole electron donor and structural Fe3+ in cysteine- and toluene-intercalated NAu-2 (referred to as cysteine-NAu-2 and toluene-NAu-2 hereafter) as the sole electron acceptor. Anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate (AQDS) was used as an electron shuttle in bicarbonate buffer. The extent of Fe3+ reduction in cysteine-NAu-2 and toluene-NAu-2 was 15.7 and 5.4%, respectively, compared to 20.5% in NAu-2 without organic matter intercalation. In the bioreduced NAu-2, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy did not detect any discrete illite, although illite/ smectite mixed layer or high charge smectite phases were observed. In bioreduced cysteine-NAu-2, discrete illite and siderite formed. In contrast, bioreduction of toluene-NAu-2 did not result in any mineralogical changes. The contrasting bioreduction results between cysteine- and toluene-intercalated nontronite may be ascribed to the nature of organic matter-bacteria interactions. Whereas cysteine is an essential amino acid for bacteria and can also serve as an electron shuttle, thus enhancing the extent of Fe3+ bioreduction and illitization, toluene is toxic and inhibits Fe3+-reducing activity. This study, therefore, highlights the significant role of organic matter in promoting the smectite to illite reaction under conditions typical of natural environments (i.e., non-growth condition for bacteria).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1401-1410
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Mineralogist
Volume92
Issue number8-9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2007 Aug 1

Fingerprint

illite
cysteine
Toluene
montmorillonite
toluene
Biological materials
smectite
Cysteine
interlayers
organic matter
bacteria
Bacteria
illitization
electron
Electrons
bacterium
electrons
iron-reducing bacterium
siderites
nontronite

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics

Cite this

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title = "Microbial effects in promoting the smectite to illite reaction: Role of organic matter intercalated in the interlayer",
abstract = "Cysteine and toluene as model organic molecules were intercalated into Fe-rich smectite (non-tronite, NAu-2). The illitization of these intercalated smectites as induced by microbial reduction of structural Fe3+ was investigated. Iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was incubated with lactate as the sole electron donor and structural Fe3+ in cysteine- and toluene-intercalated NAu-2 (referred to as cysteine-NAu-2 and toluene-NAu-2 hereafter) as the sole electron acceptor. Anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate (AQDS) was used as an electron shuttle in bicarbonate buffer. The extent of Fe3+ reduction in cysteine-NAu-2 and toluene-NAu-2 was 15.7 and 5.4{\%}, respectively, compared to 20.5{\%} in NAu-2 without organic matter intercalation. In the bioreduced NAu-2, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy did not detect any discrete illite, although illite/ smectite mixed layer or high charge smectite phases were observed. In bioreduced cysteine-NAu-2, discrete illite and siderite formed. In contrast, bioreduction of toluene-NAu-2 did not result in any mineralogical changes. The contrasting bioreduction results between cysteine- and toluene-intercalated nontronite may be ascribed to the nature of organic matter-bacteria interactions. Whereas cysteine is an essential amino acid for bacteria and can also serve as an electron shuttle, thus enhancing the extent of Fe3+ bioreduction and illitization, toluene is toxic and inhibits Fe3+-reducing activity. This study, therefore, highlights the significant role of organic matter in promoting the smectite to illite reaction under conditions typical of natural environments (i.e., non-growth condition for bacteria).",
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Microbial effects in promoting the smectite to illite reaction : Role of organic matter intercalated in the interlayer. / Zhang, Gengxin; Kim, Jinwook; Dong, Hailiang; Sommer, Andre J.

In: American Mineralogist, Vol. 92, No. 8-9, 01.08.2007, p. 1401-1410.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Cysteine and toluene as model organic molecules were intercalated into Fe-rich smectite (non-tronite, NAu-2). The illitization of these intercalated smectites as induced by microbial reduction of structural Fe3+ was investigated. Iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 was incubated with lactate as the sole electron donor and structural Fe3+ in cysteine- and toluene-intercalated NAu-2 (referred to as cysteine-NAu-2 and toluene-NAu-2 hereafter) as the sole electron acceptor. Anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate (AQDS) was used as an electron shuttle in bicarbonate buffer. The extent of Fe3+ reduction in cysteine-NAu-2 and toluene-NAu-2 was 15.7 and 5.4%, respectively, compared to 20.5% in NAu-2 without organic matter intercalation. In the bioreduced NAu-2, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy did not detect any discrete illite, although illite/ smectite mixed layer or high charge smectite phases were observed. In bioreduced cysteine-NAu-2, discrete illite and siderite formed. In contrast, bioreduction of toluene-NAu-2 did not result in any mineralogical changes. The contrasting bioreduction results between cysteine- and toluene-intercalated nontronite may be ascribed to the nature of organic matter-bacteria interactions. Whereas cysteine is an essential amino acid for bacteria and can also serve as an electron shuttle, thus enhancing the extent of Fe3+ bioreduction and illitization, toluene is toxic and inhibits Fe3+-reducing activity. This study, therefore, highlights the significant role of organic matter in promoting the smectite to illite reaction under conditions typical of natural environments (i.e., non-growth condition for bacteria).

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