Mid-latitude leading double-dip La Niña

Jae Heung Park, Soon Il An, Jong Seong Kug, Young Min Yang, Tim Li, Hyun Su Jo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Understanding the evolution asymmetry between El Niño and La Niña events is challenging. Unlike El Niño, most La Niña events are characterised by a double-dip cooling (a.k.a. multi-year La Niña). Herein, we examined how single- and multi-year La Niña events differ by analysing observational and climate-model data sets. Single-year La Niña events tend to develop narrowly within the tropics from a central Pacific-type El Niño (Niño-4 > Niño-3), whereas multi-year La Niña events tend to originate from an eastern Pacific-type El Niño (Niño-3 > Niño-4) and are well-connected to mid-latitudes through the Pacific meridional mode, which leads to a meridionally wider response of the off-equatorial low-level atmospheric anti-cyclonic circulation. As the anti-cyclonic circulation controls the amount of equatorial upper-ocean heat recharge through Sverdrup transport, for single-year La Niña, efficient ocean recharging due to a narrower anti-cyclonic circulation causes a fast transition to an El Niño or a fast termination of a La Niña. In contrast, for multi-year La Niña, a weaker recharging causes surface cooling to persist, leading to another La Niña in the following year.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E1353-E1370
JournalInternational Journal of Climatology
Volume41
Issue numberS1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF‐2020R1C1C1006569 and NRF‐2018R1A5A1024958). The SST data (Extended Reconstructed SST v3) and atmospheric data (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) were downloaded from NOAA ( https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/ ). The oceanic data (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation v2.2.4) was downloaded from http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/data/data.php . In this study, the Ncar‐CCSM4 industrial run participated in the Coupled Model Inter‐comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), which was downloaded from its website ( https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/projects/cmip5/ ).

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (NRF-2020R1C1C1006569 and NRF-2018R1A5A1024958). The SST data (Extended Reconstructed SST v3) and atmospheric data (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) were downloaded from NOAA (https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/). The oceanic data (Simple Ocean Data Assimilation v2.2.4) was downloaded from http://apdrc.soest.hawaii.edu/data/data.php. In this study, the Ncar-CCSM4 industrial run participated in the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), which was downloaded from its website (https://esgf-node.llnl.gov/projects/cmip5/).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Royal Meteorological Society

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atmospheric Science

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