Despite considerable efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has become the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac mitochondria are crucial cell organelles responsible for creating energy-rich ATP and mitochondrial dysfunction is the root cause for developing heart failure. Therefore, maintenance of mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is an essential process for cardiovascular homeostasis and cardiac health. In this review, we describe the major mechanisms of MQC system, such as mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitophagy. Moreover, we describe the results of MQC failure in cardiac mitochondria. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of 2 drug candidates, urolithin A and spermidine, for restoring mitochondrial homeostasis to treat CVD.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (2016R1A6A3A04010466 to C.M.O.) and (2017R1D1A1B03032708 to D.R.).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine