The emergence of a wide range of applications of smartphones along with advances in 'liquid biopsy' has significantly propelled medical research particularly in the field of in vitro diagnostics (IVD). Herein, we have presented a detailed analysis of IVD, its associated critical concerns and probable solutions. It also demonstrates the transition in terms of analytes from minimally invasive (blood) to non-invasive (urine, saliva and sweat) and depicts how the different features of a smartphone can be integrated for specific diagnostic purposes. This review basically highlights recent advances in the applications of smartphone-based biosensors in IVD taking into account the following factors: accuracy and portability; quantitative and qualitative analysis; and centralization and decentralization tests. Furthermore, the critical concerns and future direction of diagnostics based on smartphones are also discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Sudesna Chakravarty completed her B.Sc. (Chemistry) and M.Sc. (Organic Chemistry) in 2010 and 2012, respectively, from Gauhati University, Assam, India. She subsequently carried out her doctoral studies (2012–2017) at the Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Guwahati, India and received her Ph.D. degree from Gauhati University in 2017. Currently, she is working as a researcher in the School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, South Korea. Her research interests include Lab-on-a-chip, sensors (electrochemical, photothermal, fluorimetric, colorimetric and electrical), surface engineering, and polymeric nanomaterials
This research was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the Korean government, MSIP (no. 2015M3A9D7067364), iPET (Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries), Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea (No. 316073-03-3-HD020), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A04006450) and the Brain Korea 21 Plus Project in 2017.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Environmental Chemistry