Modeling of shallow and inefficient convection in the outer layers of the sun using realistic physics

Yong Cheol Kim, Peter A. Fox, Sabatino Sofia, Pierre Demarque

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


In an attempt to understand the properties of convective energy transport in the solar convection zone, a numerical model has been constructed for turbulent flows in a compressible, radiation-coupled, nonmagnetic, gravitationally stratified medium using a realistic equation of state and realistic opacities. The time-dependent, three-dimensional hydrodynamic equations are solved with minimal simplifications. The statistical information obtained from the present simulation provides an improved understanding of solar photospheric convection. The characteristics of solar convection in shallow regions is parameterized and compared with the results of Chan & Sofia's (1989) simulations of deep and efficient convection. We assess the importance of the zones of partial ionization in the simulation and confirm that the radiative energy transfer is negligible throughout the region except in the uppermost scale heights of the convection zone, a region of very high superadiabaticity. When the effects of partial ionization are included, the dynamics of flows are altered significantly. However, we confirm the Chan & Sofia result that kinetic energy flux is nonnegligible and can have a negative value in the convection zone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)422-433
Number of pages12
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1995 Mar 20

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Modeling of shallow and inefficient convection in the outer layers of the sun using realistic physics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this