The studies on hemoptysis have focused mainly on hemoptysis causes and massive or life-threatening hemoptysis. And there is a limited data that non-massive hemoptysis, especially moderate hemoptysis. Objectives: We analyzed the prognosis and severity of bleeding on flexible bronchoscopy (FB) between moderate and massive hemoptysis. Methods: We reviewed total 852 subjects (59.9±16.0 years) identified with hemoptysis. Reviewed database included severity of subjective hemoptysis, bleeding on FB, comorbid conditions, time from admission to bronchial artery embolization (BAE), recurrent hemoptysis and mortality. Results: In subjective hemoptysis, recurrent hemoptysis occurred in mild 8.0%, moderate 40.7%, massive hemoptysis 33.8%, and mortality was 4.7%, 13.4% and 13.5%. Especially, no statistical difference was shown in recurrent hemoptysis [hazard ratio (HR)=0.795; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.562-1.125, P=0.196] and mortality (HR=1.054; 95% CI 0.596-1.864, P=0.856) between moderate and massive hemoptysis. In moderate hemoptysis patients, oozing or active bleeding on FB took up 83.3%. In this review, recurrent hemoptysis was more in oozing bleeding than active bleeding (HR=1.781; 95% CI 1.214-2.431, P=0.002), but mortality was similar (HR=1.611; 95% CI 0.930-2.790, P=0.089). Recurrent hemoptysis significantly decreased in the group with BAE performed within 24h (HR=0.308; 95% CI 0.149-0.637, P=0.001) in moderate hemoptysis. Also, recurrent hemoptysis and mortality were significantly increased in the patients with smoking (≥40 pack-years), oozing or active bleeding on FB, and hypertension. Conclusion: Moderate hemoptysis has shown similar prognosis of recurrent hemoptysis and mortality to massive hemoptysis. Therefore, the more aggressive FB and BAE should be considered in moderate hemoptysis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine