The studies on hemoptysis have focused mainly on hemoptysis causes and massive or life-threatening hemoptysis. And there is a limited data that non-massive hemoptysis, especially moderate hemoptysis. Objectives: We analyzed the prognosis and severity of bleeding on flexible bronchoscopy (FB) between moderate and massive hemoptysis. Methods: We reviewed total 852 subjects (59.9±16.0 years) identified with hemoptysis. Reviewed database included severity of subjective hemoptysis, bleeding on FB, comorbid conditions, time from admission to bronchial artery embolization (BAE), recurrent hemoptysis and mortality. Results: In subjective hemoptysis, recurrent hemoptysis occurred in mild 8.0%, moderate 40.7%, massive hemoptysis 33.8%, and mortality was 4.7%, 13.4% and 13.5%. Especially, no statistical difference was shown in recurrent hemoptysis [hazard ratio (HR)=0.795; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.562-1.125, P=0.196] and mortality (HR=1.054; 95% CI 0.596-1.864, P=0.856) between moderate and massive hemoptysis. In moderate hemoptysis patients, oozing or active bleeding on FB took up 83.3%. In this review, recurrent hemoptysis was more in oozing bleeding than active bleeding (HR=1.781; 95% CI 1.214-2.431, P=0.002), but mortality was similar (HR=1.611; 95% CI 0.930-2.790, P=0.089). Recurrent hemoptysis significantly decreased in the group with BAE performed within 24h (HR=0.308; 95% CI 0.149-0.637, P=0.001) in moderate hemoptysis. Also, recurrent hemoptysis and mortality were significantly increased in the patients with smoking (≥40 pack-years), oozing or active bleeding on FB, and hypertension. Conclusion: Moderate hemoptysis has shown similar prognosis of recurrent hemoptysis and mortality to massive hemoptysis. Therefore, the more aggressive FB and BAE should be considered in moderate hemoptysis.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine