This review addresses composite membranes used for wastewater treatment, focusing heavily on the anti-biofouling properties of such membranes. Biofouling caused by the development of a thick biofilm on the membrane surface is a major issue that reduces water permeance and reduces its lifetime. Biofilm formation and adhesion are mitigated by modifying membranes with two-dimensional or zero-dimensional carbon-based nanomaterials or their modified substituents. In particular, nanomaterials based on graphene, including graphene oxide and carbon quantum dots, are mainly used as nanofillers in the membrane. Functionalization of the nanofillers with various organic ligands or compositing the nanofiller with other materials, such as silver nanoparticles, enhances the bactericidal ability of composite membranes. Moreover, such membrane modifications reduce biofilm adhesion while increasing water permeance and salt/dye rejection. This review discusses the recent literature on developing graphene oxide-based and carbon quantum dot-based composite membranes for biofouling-resistant wastewater treatment.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Material & Component Technology Development Program (20010846, Development of nano sized biofilter and module for virus removal) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea).
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal