The surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is grafted with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) layers via surface-initiated photopolymerization to suppress the capsular contracture resulting from a foreign body reaction. Owing to the nature of photo-induced polymerization, various PAA micropatterns can be fabricated using photolithography. Hole and stripe micropatterns ≈100-µm wide and 3-µm thick are grafted onto the PDMS surface without delamination. The incorporation of PAA micropatterns provides not only chemical cues by hydrophilic PAA microdomains but also topographical cues by hole or stripe micropatterns. In vitro studies reveal that a PAA-grafted PDMS surface has a lower proliferation of both macrophages (Raw 264.7) and fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) regardless of the pattern presence. However, PDMS with PAA micropatterns, especially stripe micropatterns, minimizes the aggregation of fibroblasts and their subsequent differentiation into myofibroblasts. An in vivo study also shows that PDMS samples with stripe micropatterns polarized macrophages into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages and most effectively inhibits capsular contracture, which is demonstrated by investigation of inflammation score, transforming-growth-factor-β expression, number of macrophages, and myofibroblasts as well as the collagen density and capsule thickness.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
J.S.L. and B.H.S. contributed equally to this work. This research was supported by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science & ICT (2017M3A7B4041798 and 2017M3D1A1039289). This research was also supported by a grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI15C1744).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Polymers and Plastics
- Materials Chemistry