Of quinoxaline compounds, echinomycin is classically known as an antitumor agent which binds to DNA via a mechanism of bis-intercalation. In addition to intercalation, quinoxaline compounds such as echinomycin, echinomycin derivatives or analogues might control anomalous cellular proliferation in eukaryotes via specifically triggering cellular signaling pathways in mitochondria, as well as under hypoxia. Further, since echinomycin was proven to be a specific inhibitor of HIF-1α, these novel mechanisms could be clinically applied in the development of therapeutics against cancer, infection, obesity, fibrosis, and autoimmune disease. Herein, this review focuses on the current toxicological profiles of echinomycin as well its potential applications in medicine.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
1Department of Microbiology and Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung 25601, Republic of Korea 2Department of Microbiology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 26426, Republic of Korea 3Institute of Genomic Cohort, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 26426, Republic of Korea 4Department of Basic Science, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon 26426, Republic of Korea 5Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education, Ji Nan University, Guangzhou, 510632, People’s Republic of China Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to S.-K. Kim ( email@example.com)
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis