The phase-speed spectrum of momentum flux by convectively forced internal gravity waves is analytically formulated in two- and three-dimensional frameworks. For this, a three-layer atmosphere that has a constant vertical wind shear in the lowest layer, a uniform wind above, and piecewise constant buoyancy frequency in a forcing region and above is considered. The wave momentum flux at cloud top is determined by the spectral combination of a wave-filtering and resonance factor and diabatic forcing. The wave-filtering and resonance factor that is determined by the basic-state wind and stability and the vertical configuration of forcing restricts the effectiveness of the forcing, and thus only a part of the forcing spectrum can be used for generating gravity waves that propagate above cumulus clouds. The spectral distribution of the wave momentum flux is largely determined by the wave-filtering and resonance factor, but the magnitude of the momentum flux varies significantly according to spatial and time scales and moving speed of the forcing. The wave momentum flux formulation in the two-dimensional framework is extended to the three-dimensional framework. The three-dimensional momentum flux formulation is similar to the two-dimensional one except that the wave propagation in various horizontal directions and the three-dimensionality of forcing are allowed. The wave momentum flux spectrum formulated in this study is validated using mesoscale numerical model results and can reproduce the overall spectral structure and magnitude of the wave momentum flux spectra induced by numerically simulated mesoscale convective systems reasonably well.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science