Attenuation of optical fields owing to scattering and absorption limits the penetration depth for imaging. Whilst aberration correction may be used, this is difficult to implement over a large field-of-view in heterogeneous tissue. Attenuation-compensation allows tailoring of the maximum lobe of a propagation-invariant light field and promises an increase in depth penetration for imaging. Here we show this promising approach may be implemented in multi-photon (two-photon) light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and, furthermore, can be achieved in a facile manner utilizing a graded neutral density filter, circumventing the need for complex beam shaping apparatus. A “gold standard” system utilizing a spatial light modulator for beam shaping is used to benchmark our implementation. The approach will open up enhanced depth penetration in light-sheet imaging to a wide range of end users.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council for funding (grants EP/P030017/1 and EP/R004854/1), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (H2020) (675512, BE-OPTICAL), the Danish Council for Independent Research (DFF FTP grant 7017-00021), and the Otto Mønsted Foundation (grant 19-70-0109). We appreciate comments from G Spickermann (M Squared Lasers Ltd) on the manuscript. We thank Dr Wardiya Afshar Saber for providing the cell lines stably expressing GFP.
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