The hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) regimen has been widely used for lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) as a primary treatment. However, there is few data about its treatment outcome in Asian patients. Thus, we conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of hyper-CVAD induction and stem cell transplantation (SCT) consolidation in LBL patients. The treatment responses of 49 patients treated with the hyper-CVAD regimen were retrospectively analyzed in 13 institutions. Given 24 patients who responded to hyper-CVAD underwent consolidation treatment with SCT, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients who received SCT were compared with patients who did not. The overall response rate was 79 %: 73 % (36/49) complete responses, 6 % (3/49) partial responses, and 4 % (2/49) induction deaths. The major limitation for the delivery of the planned hyper-CVAD cycles was hematological toxicity. Among 39 responders, 24 patients underwent autologous (n = 16) and allogeneic SCT (n = 8) consolidation. Their 3-year OS and PFS rates were 76 and 78 %, respectively, and there was no difference in survival outcomes between autologous and allogeneic SCT. However, 15 patients without SCT consolidation showed poorer PFS even though they all achieved complete response. Thus, only seven patients maintained their response at the time of analysis. In conclusion, the hyper-CVAD regimen is effective for remission induction in LBL, and SCT consolidation after hyper-CVAD induction produced better clinical outcomes than did continuation of hyper-CVAD.
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