Background/Aims: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography predicts the presence of esophageal varices (EVs). We investigated whether an ARFI-based prediction model can assess EV bleeding (EVB) risk in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: The records of 262 patients with cirrhosis who underwent ARFI elastography and endoscopic surveillance at two institutions in 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed, and ARFI-spleen diameter-to-platelet ratio scores (ASPS) were calculated. Results: The median patient age (165 men, 97 women) was 56 years. The median ARFI velocity, spleen diameter, platelet count, and ASPS were 1.7 m/sec, 10.1 cm, 145×10 9 /L, and 1.16, respectively. During the median 38-month follow-up, 61 patients experienced EVB. Among all patients (179 without EVs and 83 with EVs), the cutoff value that maximized the sum of the sensitivity (73.1%) and specificity (78.4%) (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.824) for predicting EVB was 2.60. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with ASPS ≥2.60 than in those with ASPS <2.60 (p<0.001). Among patients with EVs (n=83), 49 had high-risk EVs (HEVs), and 22 had EVB. The cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in HEV patients than in low-risk EV patients (p=0.037). At an ASPS of 4.50 (sensitivity, 66.7%; specificity, 70.6%; AUROC, 0.691), the cumulative EVB incidence was significantly higher in patients with a high ASPS than in those with a low ASPS (p=0.045). A higher ASPS independently predicted EVB (hazard ratio, 4.072; p=0.047). Conclusions: ASPS can assess EVB risk in patients with cirrhosis. Prophylactic management should be considered for patients with HEVs and ASPS ≥4.50.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported in part by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2016R1A1A1A05005138).
This study was supported in part by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (2016R1A1A1A05005138). The authors are grateful to Dong-Su Jang, (Medical Illustrator, Medical Research Support Section, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea) for his help with the figures. Author contributions: J.Y.H., data acquisition, data analysis and interpretation, drafting of the manuscript, statistical analysis; B.K.K., J.Y.P., D.Y.K., S.H.A., W.Y.T., Y.O.K., and K.H.H., data acquisition; S.Y.P., study concept and design; S.U.K., study concept and design, critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, study supervision.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes