Multimodal Biometric Template Protection Based on a Cancelable SoftmaxOut Fusion Network

Jihyeon Kim, Yoon Gyo Jung, Andrew Beng Jin Teoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Authentication systems that employ biometrics are commonplace, as they offer a conven-ient means of authenticating an individual’s identity. However, these systems give rise to concerns about security and privacy due to insecure template management. As a remedy, biometric template protection (BTP) has been developed. Cancelable biometrics is a non-invertible form of BTP in which the templates are changeable. This paper proposes a deep-learning-based end-to-end multimodal cancelable biometrics scheme called cancelable SoftmaxOut fusion network (CSMoFN). By end-to-end, we mean a model that receives raw biometric data as input and produces a protected template as output. CSMoFN combines two biometric traits, the face and the periocular region, and is com-posed of three modules: a feature extraction and fusion module, a permutation SoftmaxOut transformation module, and a multiplication-diagonal compression module. The first module carries out feature extraction and fusion, while the second and third are responsible for the hashing of fused features and compression. In addition, our network is equipped with dual template-changeability mechanisms with user-specific seeded permutation and binary random projection. CSMoFN is trained by minimizing the ArcFace loss and the pairwise angular loss. We evaluate the network, using six face–periocular multimodal datasets, in terms of its verification performance, unlinkabil-ity, revocability, and non-invertibility.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2023
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by a grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (no. NRF-2019R1A2C1003306).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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