Multimodal Characterization of Cardiac Organoids Using Integrations of Pressure-Sensitive Transistor Arrays with Three-Dimensional Liquid Metal Electrodes

Moohyun Kim, Jae Chul Hwang, Sungjin Min, Young Geun Park, Suran Kim, Enji Kim, Hunkyu Seo, Won Gi Chung, Jakyoung Lee, Seung Woo Cho, Jang Ung Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Herein, we present an unconventional method for multimodal characterization of three-dimensional cardiac organoids. This method can monitor and control the mechanophysiological parameters of organoids within a single device. In this method, local pressure distributions of human-induced pluripotent stem-cell-derived cardiac organoids are visualized spatiotemporally by an active-matrix array of pressure-sensitive transistors. This array is integrated with three-dimensional electrodes formed by the high-resolution printing of liquid metal. These liquid-metal electrodes are inserted inside an organoid to form the intraorganoid interface for simultaneous electrophysiological recording and stimulation. The low mechanical modulus and low impedance of the liquid-metal electrodes are compatible with organoids' soft biological tissue, which enables stable electric pacing at low thresholds. In contrast to conventional electrophysiological methods, this measurement of a cardiac organoid's beating pressures enabled simultaneous treatment of electrical therapeutics using a single device without any interference between the pressure signals and electrical pulses from pacing electrodes, even in wet organoid conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7892-7901
Number of pages10
JournalNano letters
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Oct 12

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Ministry of Science & ICT (MSIT), the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE), the Ministry of Health & Welfare, and the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea through the National Research Foundation for Nano Material Technology Development Program (2021M3D1A204991411), the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program (2018M3A9F1021649), the Wearable Platform Materials Technology Center ERC Program (2022R1A5A6000846), the Korea Initiative for fostering University of Research and Innovation (KIURI) Program (2020M3H1A1077207), the Technology Innovation Program (20013621, Center for Super Critical Material Industrial Technology), and the Korea Medical Device Development Fund grant (RMS 2022-11-1209/KMDF RS-2022-00141392). Also, the authors thank the financial support by the Samsung Research Funding & Incubation Center of Samsung Electronics (SRFC-TC2003-03) and the Institute for Basic Science (IBS-R026-D1).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering


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