While multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been performed with a wide range of excitation wavelengths, fluorescence emission has been limited to the visible spectrum. We introduce a paradigm for MPM of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecular probes via nonlinear excitation at 1550 nm. This all-NIR system expands the range of available MPM fluorophores, virtually eliminates background autofluorescence, and allows for use of fiber-based, turnkey ultrafast lasers developed for telecommunications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (R21/R33 CA12353701). We acknowledge S. Bhaumik, A. Sood, and J. DePuy for help in sample preparation, and P. Codella for performing linear spectroscopy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Biomedical Engineering