Multitoken-Based Power Management for NAND Flash Storage Devices

Taehee You, Sangwoo Han, Young Min Park, Hyuk Jun Lee, Eui Young Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


NAND flash-based storage devices (NFSDs) have been widely employed in various systems, including cloud servers as well as mobile devices. The core component of NFSDs is NAND flash memory (NFM) which has several advantages over the conventional hard disk drives (HDDs). An NFSD typically adopts a bunch of NFMs which are operated in parallel for maximizing the I/O throughput. However, optimizing for performance may not be desirable from the power budget (PB) perspective. In other words, concurrent operations of NFMs often drain inordinate current, which leads to the violation of the PB allocated for a storage device. In this article, we propose a novel power management scheme which maximizes concurrent operations of NFMs under the given power constraint. The proposed method quantizes the given power constraint of an NFSD. A quantum also called token is the basic unit of power management. The proposed power management scheme allocates tokens to NFMs and only the NFMs having enough tokens can perform their operations. We call this method multitoken-based power management (MTPM). The critical issue of MTPM is a deadlock which is resolved with the key allocation scheme. Furthermore, we enhance MTPM to improve performance. The extended method called keyless MTPM (KMTPM) improves the overall performance by relaxing the key acquisition requirement and allowing subatomic operations. In the experimental results, we confirm that the proposed methods always meet the given power constraint. The proposed KMTPM improves throughput by 22.85% compared to state of the art technique. In addition, KMTPM only incurs 3.8% of performance overhead and 0.015% of area overhead.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8903475
Pages (from-to)2898-2910
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Oct

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received June 7, 2019; revised September 2, 2019 and November 3, 2019; accepted November 13, 2019. Date of publication November 18, 2019; date of current version September 18, 2020. This work was supported in part by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Korea Government (MSIT) under Grant 2016R1A2B4011799, in part by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy under Grant 10080722 and Grant 10080590, in part by the Korea Semiconductor Research Consortium Support Program for the Development of the Future Semiconductor Device, in part by SK hynix, and in part by the IC Design Education Center, South Korea. This article was recommended by Associate Editor Z. Shao. (Corresponding author: Eui-Young Chung.) T. You, S. Han, Y. M. Park, and E.-Y. Chung are with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, South Korea (e-mail:

Publisher Copyright:
© 1982-2012 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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