The synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) in mesangial cells (MCs) plays important roles in the development and progression of renal diseases, including chronic allograft nephropathy. Mycophenolic acid (MPA), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 (IMPDH2), suppresses MC proliferation and ECM synthesis. However, the exact inhibitory mechanism of MPA on MCs has not been clearly elucidated. In this study we compared the inhibitory effects of MPA and IMPDH2 reduction [by using small interfering RNA (siRNA)] on oleic acid (OA)-induced fibronectin secretion and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse MCs. Growth-arrested MCs were stimulated with OA in the presence or absence of MPA, IMPDH2 siRNA, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) antibody or exogenous guanosine. Fibronectin secretion into the medium was examined by Western blot, dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF)-sensitive cellular ROS by fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS), TGF-β levels in the media by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). OA increased fibronectin secretion, TGF-β and cellular ROS levels. A TGF-β neutralizing antibody effectively suppressed OA-induced fibronectin secretion. NAC and MPA completely suppressed OA-induced fibronectin secretion and decreased the levels of TGF-β and cellular ROS. However, IMPDH2 siRNA partly inhibited OA-induced MC activation. Exogenous guanosine successfully reversed the inhibitory effects of IMPDH2 siRNA on OA-induced MC activation. Pleiotropic inhibitory effect of MPA on OA-induced mouse MC activation was mediated via its antioxidant effect on cellular ROS production and partly via inhibition of IMPDH2 itself. Our results implicate ROS as an alternative therapeutic target for the prevention of hyperlipidemia-related glomerulopathy, chronic allograft nephropathy, and subsequent graft loss.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by a 2007 young investigator research grant (given to Hyung Joon Ahn) from The Korean Society for Transplantation, Seoul, Korea, and in part by a 2008 islet research grant-in-aid from The BK21 Project Team of Nanobiomaterials for Cell-Based Implants at Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health