Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies.
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Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Ann W. Kinyua (Yonsei University) for the critical reading of this manuscript. This research was a part of the project titled “Development and Industrialization of Marine derived MAA for Anti-aging Cosmetic Products (20150071)” funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (for S.H.M). Data presented in this paper were also supported by the Global Ph. D Fellowship (NRF-2015H1A2A1032009 for D.J.Y.) and National Research Foundation (NRF-2013R1A1A1007693 and 2014K1A3A1A19066980 for K.W.K).
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery