2D vanadium carbide MXene containing surface functional groups (denoted as V2CTx, where Tx are surface functional groups) is synthesized and studied as anode material for Na-ion batteries. V2CTx anode exhibits reversible charge storage with good cycling stability and high rate capability through electrochemical test. The charge storage mechanism of V2CTx material during Na+ intercalation/deintercalation and the redox reaction of vanadium are studied using a combination of synchrotron based X-ray diffraction, hard X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). Experimental evidence of a major contribution of redox reaction of vanadium to the charge storage and the reversible capacity of V2CTx during sodiation/desodiation process are provided through V K-edge XANES and V L2,3-edge sXAS results. A correlation between the CO3 2− content and the Na+ intercalation/deintercalation states in the V2CTx electrode observed from C and O K-edge in sXAS results implies that some additional charge storage reactions may take place between the Na+-intercalated V2CTx and the carbonate-based nonaqueous electrolyte. The results of this study provide valuable information for the further studies on V2CTx as anode material for Na-ion batteries and capacitors.
|Journal||Advanced Energy Materials|
|Publication status||Published - 2017 Oct 25|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
S.-M.B. and R.Q. contributed equally to this work. The work done at the Brookhaven National Lab was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, through the Advanced Battery Materials Research (BMR) Program, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704. The Advanced Light Source (ALS) was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. B.A. and Y.G. acknowledge the support of the Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Center, the Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. B.A. acknowledges the help of Bernard Haines in the material synthesis process. The work at the Institute of Physics was supported by funding from the “One Hundred Talent Project” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The authors acknowledge technical support from the scientists at 9-BM, 12-BM, 17-BM of APS (ANL), supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The authors acknowledge technical support from the scientists at the beamlines of ISS (8-ID) and XPD (28-ID) at NSLS-II, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704. The authors also acknowledge the technical support from the beamline scientists from BL2-2 of the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.
© 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Materials Science(all)