The extracellular tissue penetrating protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica has been known to induce host cell apoptosis. However, the intracellular signaling mechanism used by the parasite to trigger apoptosis is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and of MAPKs in the Entamoeba-induced apoptosis of human neutrophils. The neutrophils incubated with live trophozoites of E. histolytica revealed a marked increase of receptor shedding of CD16 as well as phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization on the cell surface. The Entamoeba-induced apoptosis was effectively blocked by pretreatment of cells with diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI), a flavoprotein inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. A large amount of intracellular ROS was detected after exposure to viable trophozoites, and the treatment with DPI strongly inhibited the Entamoeba-induced ROS generation. However, a mitochondrial inhibitor rotenone did not attenuate the Entamoeba-induced ROS generation and apoptosis. Although E. histolytica strongly induced activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in neutrophils, the activation of ERK1/2 was closely associated with ROS-mediated apoptosis. Pretreatment of neutrophils with MEK1 inhibitor PD98059, but not p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190, prevented Entamoeba-induced apoptosis. Moreover, DPI almost completely inhibited Entamoeba-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, but not phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. These results strongly suggest that NADPH oxidase-derived ROS-mediated activation of ERK1/2 is required for the Entamoeba-induced neutrophil apoptosis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy