The formation of biofunctionalized metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) by growing them on a variety of macromolecular biological species, particularly on enzymes and living cells, offers exciting opportunities for a wide range of applications, including biocatalysis, biosensing, and diagnoses. MOFs are commonly subjected to biofunctionalization and biomimetic mineralization, owing to their good chemical and thermal stabilities and easy preparation in aqueous medium under ambient conditions. The functionalization of MOFs with biological substances, such as enzymes, nonenzymatic proteins, and living cells promotes the formation of MOF-based biocomposites which retain the biological functions of the embedded biological substances. The most common method to construct these biofunctionalized MOFs is either by directly growing the MOF on the biological moiety or by postsynthetic modification of the exterior surface of the MOF with the desired biological species. In particular, hierarchically porous MOFs (containing both mesopores and micropores) are ideal candidates for hosting enzymes and for the translocation of nonenzymatic proteins. This review covers various advanced strategies for developing MOF-based biocomposites for a wide range of bioapplications, such as biomedical storage, tumor cell targeting, and drug delivery. The influence of MOFs on the biological activity of living cells and future prospects for developing novel MOF-based biorefinery are discussed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
S.D. acknowledges the United States Department of Energy and the Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, University of Delaware, for partial funding support during the preparation of this manuscript. S.D. also acknowledges the Department of Biotechnology under the Ministry of Science & Technology, India, for the Ramalingaswami Faculty Fellowship for a research program in enzymatic biotechnology for bioenergy during the preparation of this manuscript.
© 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)