Sustainable development and the restoration of ecosystems are the important goals for civilization. Currently, heavy metal contamination of aquatic environments has become a serious issue. Chromium (Cr) is simultaneously an essential metallic element and one of 20 chemicals posing a maximum threat to living beings. To mitigate that threat, various treatment methods have been developed, including adsorption, electrocoagulation, photoelectrocatalysis, fuel cells, bioremediation, chemical precipitation, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, and co-precipitation. However, selection of the most energy- and cost-efficient wastewater treatment option has proven challenging, as each approach is subject to shortcomings involving energy consumption, treatment capacity, and efficiency. This review describes the potential role of diverse functional nanomaterials (e.g., iron/iron oxide nanoparticles, carbon nanostructures, metal organic frameworks, and their commercial counterparts) in treatment of Cr in aqueous environments with respect to key figure of merits, such as, adsorption capacity, removal efficiency, and partition coefficient. In addition, their performance was compared with the most common treatment options. The results of this study will help determine the most effective and economical options for control of Cr in aquatic environments.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge support made by the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant No: 2016R1E1A1A01940995 ).
© 2019 The Authors
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)