Crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) are known to induce arthropathic diseases called gout and pseudogout, respectively. These crystals are deposited in various joints or tissues, causing severe pain. Correct identification of crystals is crucial for the appropriate treatment of gout and pseudogout, which exhibit very similar symptoms. Herein, a novel approach of laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (LDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS) was introduced to analyze MSU and CPPD crystals with three different types of nanostructured TiO2 materials including TiO2 nanoparticles (P25), TiO2 nanowires synthesized from wet-corrosion method, and the mixture of P25 and TiO2 nanowires (P25/TiO2 nanowires) as inorganic solid matrices. Furthermore, the feasibility of LDI-ToF MS based on these TiO2 nanostructures for the analysis of the two arthropathy-related crystals was tested using spiked samples in synovial fluid at known crystal concentrations. The mass analysis results of MSU and CPPD crystals demonstrated that (1) the electrostatic interaction between analytes and solid matrices was key for the analyte ionization and (2) LDI-ToF MS with nanostructured TiO2 materials has the potential to be a practical approach for the diagnosis of gout and pseudogout.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Industry Technology Development Program [Grant No. 10063335] funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy (MOTIE, Korea) and the National Research Foundation of Korea [Grant No. NRF-2017R1A2B4004077].
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry