National contexts influencing principals' time use and allocation: economic development, societal culture, and educational system

Moosung Lee, Philip Hallinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

45 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional leadership, administration, and management of relationships with parents and community. The study employed a 2-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) to analyze data on 5,927 principals in 34 societies drawn from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006. The results support the proposition that principal time use and allocation varies substantially across societies and that these patterns of behavior are influenced by economic, sociocultural and institutional features of their societies. The study contributes to a growing body of research that seeks to understand how the practice of school leadership is shaped by the organizational and cultural context.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-482
Number of pages22
JournalSchool Effectiveness and School Improvement
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Dec 1


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education

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