Purpose: To evaluate practice patterns for pediatric hydronephrosis of Korean urologists practicing at secondary or university hospitals. Materials and Methods: The subjects were asked to complete questionnaires sent by postal mail or e-mail that explored practicing diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the management of pediatric hydronephrosis and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The questionnaires of those responding were analyzed according to whether the respondent practiced at a secondary or university hospital, how long they had been urologists, and whether they specialized in pediatric urology or other specific field of urology. Results: Of the 354 questionnaires sent, 97 were returned (response rate 27.4%). Voiding cystourethrography was not routinely recommended by 95.7% of respondents, and diuretic renal scanning was considered necessary for postnatal evaluation of prenatal hydronephrosis by 78.5%. In addition, 72.2% of these doctors did not routinely recommend antibiotic prophylaxis. Follow-up ultrasonography was recommended at 3 to 6 months (61.1%), and follow-up diuretic renal scanning was recommended at 3 to 6 months (38.6%) or 6 to 12 months (32.7%). The reported length of time it took to deem an operation as a success was 3 to 6 months (49.5% and 60.7%) and within 3 months (34.1% and 19.1%) by ultrasonography and diuretic renal scanning, respectively. Conclusions: This survey documented a certain degree of variability among Korean urologists concerning standard practices of the assessment, follow-up, and treatment for pediatric hydronephrosis. Results from this survey might contribute useful data for establishing proper guidelines for the management of pediatric hydronephrosis.
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