Nature-derived highly tribopositive ϰ-carrageenan-agar composite-based fully biodegradable triboelectric nanogenerators

Minki Kang, Muhammad Syafiq Bin Mohammed Khusrin, Young Jun Kim, Bosung Kim, Byung Joon Park, Inah Hyun, Iman Mohammadi Imani, Byung Ok Choi, Sang Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Biodegradable triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have been studied for powering biotransient electronics in past years. For stable powering, developing biodegradable materials which have high tribopositive properties as well as high biocompatibility is crucially required. Here, we investigate a nature-derived ϰ-carrageenan-agar (ϰC-Agar) composite as high-performing triboelectric friction material for biodegradable TENG. We found that the composite shows greatly enhanced electron-donating property. At an optimized ϰC concentration of 80 wt%, the surface potential at most 57.5% increases compared to bare materials. We validated that the enhancement was caused by increased charge trapping sites consisting of Ca2+ cations and sulfate ester groups in the composite. In addition, we found that the ϰC-Agar composite has high intrinsic biocompatibility as it shows high cell viability in MTT assay and subdermal implant causes little noticeable inflammation, contributed by the high hydrophilicity of the composite. We further demonstrate a fully biodegradable TENG using an optimized ϰC-Agar composite. Very thin (0.3 mm) and flexible our device generates high output root-mean-square (RMS) current of 0.45 mA·m−2 and output RMS power of 0.15 mW·m−2 at optimized impedance. Our work provides a basis for the development of high-performance biodegradable TENGs for self-powered transient electronics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107480
JournalNano Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Sept

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M. Kang and M.S. Bin Mohammed Khusrin contributed equally to the work. This paper was supported by SKKU Excellence in Research Award Research Fund, Sungkyunkwan University , 2020.

Funding Information:
Dr. Sang-Woo Kim is an SKKU Distinguished Professor (SKKU Fellow) at Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU). His recent research interest is focused on triboelectric/piezoelectric nanogenerators, self-powered sensors and body-implantable devices, and 2D materials. Prof. Kim has published over 300 research papers (h-index of 80). He served as Chairman of the 4th NGPT conference at SKKU in 2018. Now he is a PI of Research Leader Program and a Director of the National Core Materials Research Center supported by National Research Foundation of Korea, and is currently serving as an Associate Editor of Nano Energy and an Executive Board Member of Advanced Electronic Materials.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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