Fullerene-free all-small-molecule organic photovoltaic cells (SM-OPVs) have attracted considerable attention because of well-defined molecular structures with low batch-to-batch variation. Porphyrin derivatives have recently emerged as one of the promising conjugated building blocks for the small-molecule (SM) donors. Herein, we first report fullerene-free SM-OPVs employing porphyrin-based donors. Three zinc porphyrin (PZn)-based SM donors, which have strong bimodal absorption in the visible region and near-infrared region, are synthesized. Constructing bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) active layers using the PZn donors and a SM acceptor, IDIC, which have complementary absorption, achieved panchromatic photon-to-current-conversion from 400 to 900 nm. The manipulation of side chains in the PZn donors considerably influenced the molecular ordering and nanomorphology of the BHJ active layers. PZn-based fullerene-free SM-OPV devices with promising power conversion efficiency of 6.13% were achieved, which also offers crucial guidance for developing fullerene-free OPVs using porphyrin derivatives.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the New and Renewable Energy Core Technology Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), granted financial resources from the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, Republic of Korea (No. 20163030013960), the National Research Foundation (NRF) Grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP, No.2016R1A5A1012966), and the Global Scholarship Program for Foreign Graduate Students at Kookmin University in Korea.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Chemistry
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment