Purpose: This study describes the nerve entry points and intramuscular nerve branching of the tibialis anterior, providing essential information for therapeutic functional electrical stimulation and botulinum toxin injection. Methods: One hundred and ten legs from Korean and Thai cadavers were dissected. Ten specimens were harvested and subjected to modified Sihler’s staining. Results: The average total length from the lateral malleolus to the fibular head was 32.0 cm (SD 1.9). The nerve entry points were densely distributed between 86.5 and 90.6 % of the reference length, where the first and second nerve entry points were observable. A densely arborizing area of the intramuscular nerve branches was observed at 70–80 % of the reference length. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, clinicians can increase the effectiveness of therapeutic functional electrical stimulation and identify the ideal sites for botulinum toxin injection to the tibialis anterior muscle.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Kim and Rha contributed equally to this work as co-corresponding authors. This study was supported by a faculty research grant of Yonsei University College of Medicine in 2014 (6-2014-0140). The authors thank Sang-Hoon Kwon, Yong-Woong Lee, and Kevin Lee from the College of Arts and Science, New York University. We also thank In-Kyo Oh, who is majoring in Chemistry at the University of Western Ontario. These authors performed the English editing of manuscript.
© 2016, Springer-Verlag France.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging