Preconditioning by brief ischemic episode induces tolerance to a subsequent lethal ischemic insult, and it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species are involved in this phenomenon. Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2), a small protein with redox-regulating function, shows cytoprotective roles against oxidative stress. Here, we had focused on the role of Trx2 in ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress followed by a subsequent lethal transient cerebral ischemia. Animals used in this study were randomly assigned to six groups; sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated group, IPC + ischemia-operated group, IPC + auranofin (a TrxR2 inhibitor) + sham-operated group and IPC + auranofin + ischemia-operated group. IPC was subjected to a 2 minutes of sublethal transient ischemia 1 day prior to a 5 minutes of lethal transient ischemia. A significant loss of neurons was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia-operated-group 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion; in the IPC + ischemia-operated-group, pyramidal neurons in the SP were well protected. In the IPC + ischemia-operated-group, Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the SP and its protein level in the CA1 were not significantly changed compared with those in the sham-operated-groupafter ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression, superoxide anion radical production, denatured cytochrome c expression and TUNEL-positive cells in the IPC + ischemia-operated-group were similar to those in the sham-operated-group. Conversely, the treatment of auranofin to the IPC + ischemia-operated-group significantly increased cell damage/death and abolished the IPC-induced effect on Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions. Furthermore, the inhibition of Trx2R nearly cancelled the beneficial effects of IPC on SOD2 expression, production, denatured cytochrome c expression and TUNEL-positive cells. In brief, this study shows that IPC conferred neuroprotection against ischemic injury by maintaining Trx2 and suggests that the maintenance or enhancement of Trx2 expression by IPC may be a legitimate strategy for therapeutic intervention of cerebral ischemia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank Mr. Seung Uk Lee for their technical help. This research was supported by the Bio-Synergy Research Project (NRF-2015M3A9C4076322) of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning through the National Research Foundation, by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2013M3A9B6046563), which was funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning, and by the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the Korean government, MSIP (NRF-2015M3A9B6066835).
© 2016 International Society of Neuropathology
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine
- Clinical Neurology