Excessive intracellular accumulation of zinc (Zn2+) is neurotoxic and contributes to a number of neuropathological conditions. Here, we investigated the protective effect of 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) against Zn2+-induced neuronal cell death in differentiated PC12 cells. We found that Zn2+-induced PC12 cell death was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by pretreatment with SIN-1. The intracellular accumulation of Zn2+ was not affected by pretreatment with SIN-1, indicating that SIN-1-induced neuroprotection was not attributable to reduced influx of Zn2+ into cells. SIN-1C, the stable decomposition product of SIN-1, failed to prevent Zn2+-induced cell death. Furthermore, the protective effect of SIN-1 against Zn2+-induced PC12 cell death was almost completely abolished by uric acid, a free radical scavenger, suggesting that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generated by SIN-1 may contribute to the protective effect. SIN-1 prevented the inactivation of glutathione reductase (GR) and the increase in the ratio of oxidized glutathione/total glutathione (GSSG/total GSH) induced by Zn2+. Addition of membrane permeable GSH ethyl ester (GSH-EE) to PC12 cells prior to Zn2+ treatment significantly increased cell viability. We therefore conclude that SIN-1 may exert neuroprotective effect against Zn2+-induced cell death in differentiated PC12 cells by preventing inhibition of GR and increase in GSSG/total GSH ratio.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Research Fund from Yonsei University College of Dentistry for 2011.
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