New air fluorescence detectors employed in the Telescope Array experiment

H. Tokuno, Y. Tameda, M. Takeda, K. Kadota, D. Ikeda, M. Chikawa, T. Fujii, M. Fukushima, K. Honda, N. Inoue, F. Kakimoto, S. Kawana, E. Kido, J. N. Matthews, T. Nonaka, S. Ogio, S. Okuda, S. Ozawa, H. Sagawa, N. SakuraiT. Shibata, A. Taketa, S. B. Thomas, T. Tomida, Y. Tsunesada, S. Udo, T. Abu-Zayyad, R. Aida, M. Allen, R. Anderson, R. Azuma, E. Barcikowski, J. W. Belz, D. R. Bergman, S. A. Blake, R. Cady, B. G. Cheon, J. Chiba, E. J. Cho, W. R. Cho, H. Fujii, T. Fukuda, D. Gorbunov, W. Hanlon, K. Hayashi, Y. Hayashi, N. Hayashida, K. Hibino, K. Hiyama, T. Iguchi, K. Ikuta, T. Ishii, R. Ishimori, D. Ivanov, S. Iwamoto, C. C.H. Jui, O. Kalashev, T. Kanbe, K. Kasahara, H. Kawai, S. Kawakami, H. B. Kim, H. K. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, K. Kitamoto, K. Kobayashi, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Kondo, K. Kuramoto, V. Kuzmin, Y. J. Kwon, S. I. Lim, S. MacHida, K. Martens, J. Martineau, T. Matsuda, T. Matsuura, T. Matsuyama, I. Myers, M. Minamino, K. Miyata, H. Miyauchi, Y. Murano, T. Nakamura, S. W. Nam, M. Ohnishi, H. Ohoka, K. Oki, D. Oku, A. Oshima, I. H. Park, M. S. Pshirkov, D. Rodriguez, S. Y. Roh, G. Rubtsov, D. Ryu, A. L. Sampson, L. M. Scott, P. D. Shah, F. Shibata, H. Shimodaira, B. K. Shin, J. I. Shin, T. Shirahama, J. D. Smith, P. Sokolsky, T. J. Sonley, R. W. Springer, B. T. Stokes, S. R. Stratton, T. Stroman, S. Suzuki, Y. Takahashi, M. Takita, H. Tanaka, K. Tanaka, M. Tanaka, G. B. Thomson, P. Tinyakov, I. Tkachev, S. Troitsky, K. Tsutsumi, Y. Tsuyuguchi, Y. Uchihori, H. Ukai, G. Vasiloff, Y. Wada, T. Wong, M. Wood, Y. Yamakawa, H. Yamaoka, K. Yamazaki, J. Yang, S. Yoshida, H. Yoshii, R. Zollinger, Z. Zundel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

183 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Since 2007, the Telescope Array (TA) experiment, based in Utah, USA, has been observing ultra high energy cosmic rays to understand their origins. The experiment includes a surface detector (SD) array and three fluorescence detector (FD) stations. The FD stations, installed surrounding the SD array, measure the air fluorescence light emitted from extensive air showers (EASs) for precise determination of their energies and species. The detectors employed at one of the three FD stations were relocated from the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) experiment. At the other two stations, newly designed detectors were constructed for the TA experiment. An FD consists of a primary mirror and a camera equipped with photomultiplier tube pixels. To obtain the EAS parameters with high accuracy, understanding the FD optical characteristics is important. In this paper, we report the characteristics and installation of the new FDs and the performances of the FD components. The results of the monitored mirror reflectance during the observation time are also described in this report.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-65
Number of pages12
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Volume676
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Telescope Array experiment is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Specially Promoted Research ( 21000002 ) “Extreme Phenomena in the Universe Explored by Highest Energy Cosmic Rays”, and the Inter-University Research Program of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research; by the U.S. National Science Foundation awards PHY-0307098, PHY-0601915, PHY-0703893, PHY-0758342, and PHY-0848320 (Utah) and PHY-0649681 (Rutgers) ; by the National Research Foundation of Korea ( 2006-0050031, 2007-0056005, 2007-0093860, 2010-0011378, 2010-0028071, R32-10130 ); by the Russian Academy of Sciences , RFBR Grants 10-02-01406a and 11-02-01528a (INR), IISN project No. 4.4509.10 and Belgian Science Policy under IUAP VI/11 (ULB). The foundations of Dr. Ezekiel R. and Edna Wattis Dumke, Willard L. Eccles, and the George S. and Dolores Dore Eccles all helped with generous donations. The State of Utah supported the project through its Economic Development Board , and the University of Utah through the Office of the Vice President for Research . The experimental site became available through the cooperation of the Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration (SITLA), U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Air Force. We also wish to thank the people and the officials of Millard County, Utah, for their steadfast and warm support. We gratefully acknowledge the contributions from the technical staffs of our home institutions and the University of Utah Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC). We thank HAMAMATSU Photonics K.K., Sanko Seikohjyo Co., Ltd., Quality Steel Fabricating And Welding, Inc., T&D Maintenance, Nitto Kogyo Corporation, and Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. for their kind support.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Instrumentation

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