Nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of ionic liquids (IL), which are precursors of both nitrogen and carbon, using a silica hard template in the presence of a transition metal. From the linear sweep voltammogram recorded in an acidic solution, the ORR activity of the nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts increased significantly after the addition of the transition metal during the pyrolysis of the IL. From XPS-N 1s analysis, the introduction of the transition metal positively contributes to the formation of graphitic-N, which is known to be an active site for the ORR. The results of XPS-C 1s suggest a strong correlation between the sp2-carbon network and the ORR activity. Co is a more effective metal compared to Ni due to the creation of a higher degree of sp2-carbon networks for fast electron transfer during the ORR. Based on the quantitative analysis of the experimental results, the IL is a promising precursor for nitrogen-doped carbon catalysts, and the addition of a transition metal is essential for improved activity of the ORR.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea ( 2009-0093823 ) and ( NRF-2009-C1AAA001-0092926 ) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology .
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology