Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most common forms of chronic kidney disease. Its pathogenic mechanism is complex, and it can affect entire structures of the kidney. However, conventional approaches to early stage DKD have focused on changes to the glomerulus. Current standard screening tools for DKD, albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate are insufficient to reflect early tubular injury. Therefore, many tubular biomarkers have been suggested. Non-albumin proteinuria (NAP) contains a wide range of tubular biomarkers and is convenient to measure. We reviewed the clinical meanings of NAP and its significance as a marker for early stage DKD.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the Technology Innovation Program funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea) (20004103).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Space and Planetary Science